Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
12 Months Ended
Nov. 01, 2020
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition
Adoption of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)

As of October 29, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of October 29, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning on October 29, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with historical accounting guidance.

The cumulative impact of adopting ASC 606 resulted in an increase of $0.4 million to opening retained earnings. The impact is primarily driven by an adjustment to deferred revenue due to a change in the required criteria for defining customer contracts under the new guidance. As of and for the period ended November 1, 2020 and November 3, 2019, the consolidated financial statements were not materially impacted by the implementation of ASC 606.

Revenue Recognition

All of the Company’s revenue and trade receivables are generated from contracts with customers. Revenue is recognized when control of the promised services is transferred to the Company’s customers at an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services. The Company’s revenue is recorded net of any sales or other similar taxes collected from its customers.

A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct service to the customer. The majority of the Company’s contracts contain single performance obligations. For performance obligations that the Company satisfies over time, revenue is recognized by consistently applying a method of measuring progress toward satisfaction of that performance obligation. The Company will generally utilize an input measure of time (e.g., hours, weeks, months) of service provided, which depicts the progress toward completion of each performance obligation.

Volt generally determines the standalone selling prices based on the prices included in the customer contracts. The price as specified in its customer contracts is typically considered the standalone selling price as it is an observable input that depicts the price as if sold to a similar customer. Certain customer contracts have variable consideration, including rebates, guarantees, credits, or other similar items that reduce the transaction price. The Company will generally estimate the variable consideration using the expected value method to predict the amount of consideration to which it will become entitled, based on the circumstances of each customer contract and historical evidence. Revenue is recognized net of variable consideration to the extent that it is probable that a significant future reversal will not occur. The Company’s estimated amounts of variable consideration are not material and it does not believe that there will be significant changes to its estimates.

In certain scenarios where a third-party vendor is involved in the Company’s revenue transactions with its customers, the Company will evaluate whether it is the principal or the agent in the transaction. When Volt acts as the principal, it controls the performance obligation prior to transfer of the service to the customer and reports the related consideration as gross revenues and the costs as cost of services. When Volt acts as an agent, it does not control the performance obligation prior to transfer of the service to the customer and it reports the related amounts as revenue on a net basis. The Company generally demonstrates control over the service when it is responsible for the fulfillment of services under the contract, responsible for the workers performing the service and when it has latitude in establishing pricing. Volt generally acts as an agent in its transactions within its MSP programs where the Company provides comprehensive management of its customer’s contingent workforce and receive fees based on the volume of services managed within each program. The Company is the agent in these transactions since it does not have the responsibility for the fulfillment of the services by the vendors or contractors (referred to as associate vendors). In these transactions, the Company does not control the third-party providers’ staffing services provided to the customers prior to those services being transferred to the customer.

Revenue Service Types

Staffing Services
Volt’s primary service is providing contingent (temporary) workers to its customers. These services are primarily provided through direct agreements with customers and Volt provides these services using its employees and, in some cases, by subcontracting with other vendors of contingent workers. Volt’s costs in providing these services consist of the wages and benefits provided to the contingent workers as well as the recruiting costs, payroll department costs and other administrative
costs. The Company recognizes revenue for its contingent staffing services over time as services are performed in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for its services, which is generally calculated as hours worked multiplied by the agreed-upon hourly bill rate. The customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the services as they are provided. The Company applies the practical expedient to recognize revenue for these services over the term of the agreement commensurate to the amount it has the right to invoice the customer.

Direct Placement Services
Direct placement services include providing qualified candidates to the Company’s customers to hire on a permanent basis. These services are primarily recognized at a point in time when the qualified candidate is placed and begins permanent employment which is the point when control has transferred to the customer and the Company has the right to payment for the service. Each placement is a single performance obligation under the Company’s contracts and the related consideration is typically based upon a percentage of the candidates’ base salary. Direct placement revenue is recognized net of a reserve for permanent placement candidates that do not remain with the customer through the contingency period, which is typically 60 days or less. This contingency is estimated based on historical data and recorded as a refund liability.

Managed Service Programs (MSP)
The Company’s MSP programs provide comprehensive solutions for delivery of contingent labor for assignment to customers, including supplier and worker sourcing, selecting, qualifying, on/off-boarding, time and expense recordation, reporting and approved invoicing and payment processing procedures. Since the individual activities are not distinct, the Company accounts for these activities as a single performance obligation. The Company’s fee for these MSP services is a fixed percentage of the staffing services spend that is managed through the program. The Company recognizes revenue over time for each month of MSP services provided as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the services the Company provides. The Company applies the practical expedient to recognize revenue for these services over the term of the agreement commensurate to the amount it has the right to invoice the customer.

Call Center Services
The customer care solutions business through June 2019 specialized in serving as an extension of its customers’ relationships and processes, from help desk inquiries to advanced technical support. The Company earned a fee based upon the type, volume and level of services provided as part of the call center operations. Since the individual activities are not distinct, the Company accounted for them as a single performance obligation. The Company recognized revenue over time as the customer simultaneously received and consumed the services the Company provided. The Company applied the practical expedient to recognize revenue for these services over the term of the agreement commensurate to the amount it had the right to invoice the customer.

Disaggregation of Revenues

The following table presents the Company's segment revenues disaggregated by service type (in thousands):

Fiscal Year Ended November 1, 2020
Segment Total North American Staffing International Staffing North American
Corporate and Other Eliminations
Service Revenues:
Staffing Services $ 791,163  $ 683,635  $ 83,308  $ 24,483  $ 674  $ (937)
Direct Placement Services 11,820  5,460  3,703  2,657  —  — 
Managed Service Programs 19,072  —  8,297  10,775  —  — 
$ 822,055  $ 689,095  $ 95,308  $ 37,915  $ 674  $ (937)
Geographical Markets:
Domestic $ 722,985  $ 686,252  $ —  $ 37,582  $ —  $ (849)
International 99,070  2,843  95,308  333  674  (88)
$ 822,055  $ 689,095  $ 95,308  $ 37,915  $ 674  $ (937)
Fiscal Year Ended November 3, 2019
Segment Total North American Staffing International Staffing North American
Corporate and Other (1) Eliminations
Service Revenues:
Staffing Services $ 950,595  $ 822,550  $ 105,815  $ 22,987  $ 728  $ (1,485)
Direct Placement Services 14,880  8,397  4,600  2,962  —  (1,079)
Managed Service Programs 17,023  —  3,962  13,061  —  — 
Call Center Services 14,592  —  —  —  14,592  — 
$ 997,090  $ 830,947  $ 114,377  $ 39,010  $ 15,320  $ (2,564)
Geographical Markets:
Domestic $ 878,095  $ 827,641  $ —  $ 38,337  $ 14,592  $ (2,475)
International 118,995  3,306  114,377  673  728  (89)
$ 997,090  $ 830,947  $ 114,377  $ 39,010  $ 15,320  $ (2,564)
(1) Includes the revenues from Volt's Customer Care Solutions business through the time of exit in June 2019.

Payment Terms

Customer payment terms vary by arrangement although payments are typically due within 15 - 45 days of invoicing. The timing between the satisfaction of the performance obligations and the payment is not significant and the Company currently does not have any significant financing components or significant payment terms.

Unsatisfied Performance Obligations

The Company does not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which they will recognize revenue at the amount to which it has the right to invoice for services performed. Unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts not meeting the aforementioned criteria are immaterial.

Accounts Receivable, Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities

The Company records accounts receivable when its right to consideration becomes unconditional. The Company maintains a sales allowance for any potential billing errors and service-related adjustments to the customer. The amount of the sales allowance is determined based on a historical transaction analysis and additions to the sales allowance are recorded as a reduction to net revenue. 

As required under Topic 606, the Company changed its presentation to show this allowance as a liability, whereas under Topic 605, these accounts receivables were recorded net of an allowance. As of November 3, 2019, the change in the reserve balance from adoption was $0.4 million. The change in the reserve balance during fiscal 2020 and as of November 1, 2020 was not material. Contract assets primarily relate to the Company’s rights to consideration for services provided that are conditional on satisfaction of future performance obligations. The Company records contract liabilities when payments are made or due prior to the related performance obligations being satisfied. The current portion of contract liabilities is included in Accrued insurance and other in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company does not have any material contract assets or long-term contract liabilities as of November 1, 2020 and November 3, 2019.

The Company may incur fulfillment costs after obtaining a contract to generate a resource that will be used to provide the MSP services. These costs are related to the set up and implementation of customer specific MSP programs and are considered incremental and recoverable costs to fulfill the Company’s contract with the customer. These costs are deferred and amortized over the expected period of benefit of the MSP services provided to the customer, determined by taking into consideration its customer contracts and other relevant factors. Amortization expense is included in Selling, administrative and other operating
costs on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Deferred fulfillment costs were immaterial as of November 1, 2020 and November 3, 2019.

Economic Factors

The Company's operations are subject to variations in the economic condition and regulatory environment in their jurisdictions of operations. Adverse economic conditions may severely reduce the demand for the Company’s services and directly impact the revenue. In addition, the Company faces risks in complying with various legal requirements and unpredictable changes in both U.S. and foreign regulations which may have a financial impact on the business and operations.

The global spread of COVID-19 has created significant volatility, uncertainty and global macroeconomic disruption. This was due to related government actions, non-governmental agency recommendations and public perceptions and disruption in global economic and labor market conditions. Our business, results of operations and financial condition have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by the coronavirus pandemic and future adverse impacts could be material and are difficult to predict.