Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Oct. 31, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Volt Information Sciences, Inc. (the “Company” or “Volt”) is a global provider of staffing services (traditional time and materials-based as well as project-based). Our staffing services consist of workforce solutions that include providing contingent workers, personnel recruitment services and managed staffing services programs supporting primarily administrative and light industrial (commercial) as well as technical, information technology and engineering (professional) positions. Our managed service programs (“MSP”) involve managing the procurement and on-boarding of contingent workers from multiple providers.

Our complementary businesses offer customized talent and supplier management solutions to a diverse client base. Volt services global industries including aerospace, automotive, banking and finance, consumer electronics, information technology, insurance, life sciences, manufacturing, media and entertainment, pharmaceutical, software, telecommunications, transportation and utilities. The Company was incorporated in New York in 1957. The Company’s stock is traded on the NYSE AMERICAN under the symbol “VOLT”.
(a)Fiscal Year
The Company’s fiscal year ends on the Sunday nearest October 31st. The fiscal years 2021 and 2020 consisted of 52 weeks.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and all subsidiaries over which the Company exercises control. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
(c)Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, assumptions and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts, casualty reserves, valuation of goodwill, intangible assets and other long-lived assets, share-based compensation, employee benefit plans, restructuring and severance accruals, income taxes and related valuation allowances and loss contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates and changes in estimates are reflected in the period in which they become known.
(d)Revenue Recognition

All of the Company’s revenue and trade receivables are generated from contracts with customers. Revenue is recognized when control of the promised services is transferred to the Company’s customers at an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services. Volt generally determines the standalone selling prices based on the prices included in the customer contracts. The Company’s revenue is recorded net of any sales or other similar taxes collected from its customers.

The majority of customer contracts have single performance obligations that the Company satisfies over time and revenue is recognized by consistently applying a method of measuring progress toward satisfaction of that performance obligation. The Company will generally utilize an input measure of time (e.g., hours, weeks, months) of service provided, which depicts the progress toward completion of each performance obligation.

Certain customer contracts have variable consideration, including rebates, guarantees, credits, or other similar items that reduce the transaction price. The Company will generally estimate the variable consideration using the expected value method to predict the amount of consideration to which it will become entitled, based on the circumstances of each customer contract and historical evidence. Revenue is recognized net of variable consideration to the extent that it is probable that a significant future reversal will not occur.

In scenarios where a third-party vendor is involved in the Company’s revenue transactions with its customers, the Company will evaluate whether it is the principal or the agent in the transaction. When Volt acts as the principal, it controls the performance obligation prior to transfer of the service to the customer and reports the related consideration as gross revenues and the costs as cost of services. When Volt acts as an agent, it does not control the performance obligation prior to transfer of the service to the customer and it reports the related amounts as revenue on a net basis.
Refer to Note 3, Revenue Recognition for the revenue policies related to each specific transaction type.
(e)Expense Recognition
Cost of Services
Cost of services consists primarily of contingent worker payroll, related employment taxes and benefits and the cost of facilities used by contingent workers in fulfilling assignments and projects for staffing services customers, including reimbursable costs. Indirect costs are included in Selling, administrative and other operating costs in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The Cost of services differ from the cost included within Selling, administrative and other operating costs in that they arise specifically and directly from the actions of providing staffing services to customers.
Gross margin is calculated as revenue less cost of services.
Selling, Administrative and Other Operating Costs
Selling, administrative and other operating costs primarily relate to the Company’s selling and administrative efforts, as well as the indirect costs associated with providing services.
(f)Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is the net income (loss) of the Company combined with other changes in stockholders’ equity not involving ownership interest changes. The Company recognizes foreign currency translation as comprehensive income (loss).
(g)Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents.
(h)Short-Term Investments and Related Deferred Compensation, Net
The Company has a nonqualified deferred compensation and supplemental savings plan that permits eligible employees to defer a portion of their compensation. The employee compensation deferral is invested in short-term investments corresponding to the employees’ investment selections, primarily mutual funds, which are held in a trust and are reported at current market prices. The liability associated with the nonqualified deferred compensation and supplemental savings plan consists of participant deferrals and earnings thereon and is reflected as a current liability within Accrued compensation in an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying short-term investments held in the plan. Changes in asset values result in offsetting changes in the liability as the employees realize the rewards and bear the risks of their investment selections.
(i)Long-Lived Assets
i.Property, Equipment and Software, Net
Property and equipment are stated at cost and depreciation is calculated on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Costs for both on-premise and cloud computing software that will be used for internal purposes and incurred during the application development stage are capitalized and amortized to expense over the estimated useful life of the underlying software. Training and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.

The major classifications of property, equipment and software, including their respective expected useful lives, consisted of the following:
Machinery and Equipment
3 to 15 years
Leasehold improvements Shorter of length of lease or life of the asset
3 to 7 years
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 842, Leases in the first quarter of fiscal 2020 and recognized assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms greater than twelve months in the statement of financial position. Volt determines if an arrangement meets the criteria of a lease at inception, at which time it also performs an analysis to
determine whether the lease qualifies as operating or financing.
Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets represent Volt’s right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities adjusted for prepaid or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives and impairment of operating lease assets. As the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable, the Company used its incremental borrowing rates based on the information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, the Company estimates incremental secured borrowing rates corresponding to the maturities of the leases.
The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment under ASC 360 Property, Plant and Equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. When an impairment loss is recognized, the carrying amount of the asset is reduced to its estimated fair value based on an undiscounted cash flow analysis.
Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. The Company applies the method of assessing goodwill for possible impairment permitted by Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This guidance allows for an initial qualitative test at the reporting unit level to determine if a quantitative analysis is needed. If the qualitative assessment results in a conclusion that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value, then no further testing is performed for that reporting unit.

The Company performs its annual impairment review of goodwill in its second fiscal quarter and when a triggering event occurs between annual impairment tests. In fiscal 2021, the Company decided to bypass the qualitative testing and perform the quantitative analysis. In conducting the goodwill impairment test, the fair value of a reporting unit is compared with its carrying amount utilizing various valuation techniques. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, then no further testing is performed. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized for any excess of the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill over the implied fair value of that goodwill.
(k)Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases as well as for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using current tax laws and rates in effect for the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized within income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company must then assess the likelihood that its deferred tax assets will be realized. If the Company does not believe that it is more likely than not that its deferred tax assets will be realized, a valuation allowance is established. When a valuation allowance is increased or decreased, a corresponding tax expense or benefit is recorded.
Accounting for income taxes involves uncertainty and judgment in how to interpret and apply tax laws and regulations within the Company’s annual tax filings. Such uncertainties may result in tax positions that may be challenged and overturned by a tax authority in the future, which would result in additional tax liability, interest charges and possible penalties. Interest and penalties are classified as a component of income tax expense.
The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in estimate occurs.
(l)Share-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for share-based awards as either equity or liability awards based upon the characteristics of each instrument. The compensation cost is measured based on the grant date fair value of the award. The fair value of liability awards is re-measured periodically based on the effect that the market condition has on these awards. The share-based compensation expense for all awards is recognized over the requisite service or performance periods as a cost in Selling, administrative and other operating costs in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations. The Company has elected to
account for forfeitures as they occur. If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested awards, the Company may be required to accelerate any remaining unearned share-based compensation cost or incur incremental cost.
(m)Foreign Currency
Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries that operate in a local currency environment, where that local currency is the functional currency, are translated to U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the year which approximate the rates in effect at the transaction dates. The resulting translation adjustments are directly recorded to a separate component of Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Gains and losses arising from intercompany foreign currency transactions that are of a long-term nature are reported in the same manner as translation adjustments. Gains and losses arising from intercompany foreign currency transactions that are not of a long-term nature and certain transactions of the Company’s subsidiaries which are denominated in currencies other than the subsidiaries’ functional currency are recognized as incurred in Foreign exchange gain (loss), net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(n)Fair Value Measurement
Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value are measured and classified in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements, using a three-tier fair value hierarchy based on the observability of the inputs available in the market to measure fair value. Please refer to Note 5 for further detail.
(o)Legal and Other Contingencies
The Company is involved in various demands, claims and actual and threatened litigation that arise in the normal course of business. If the potential loss from any claim or legal proceeding is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, a liability and an expense are recorded for the estimated loss. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination of whether an exposure is reasonably estimable. Actual expenses could differ from these estimates in subsequent periods as additional information becomes known.
(p)Concentrations of Credit Risk
Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with several financial institutions and deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand and the Company mitigates its credit risk by spreading its deposits across multiple financial institutions and monitoring their respective risk profiles.
(q)Restructuring and Severance Costs
The Company accounts for restructuring activities in accordance with ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations. Under the guidance, for the cost of restructuring activities that do not constitute a discontinued operation, the liability for the current fair value of expected future costs associated with such restructuring activity is recognized in the period in which the liability is incurred. The costs of restructuring activities taken pursuant to a management approved restructuring plan are segregated.
(r)Earnings (Loss) Per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The diluted earnings per share computation includes the effect of potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares include the dilutive effects of shares that would be issuable upon the exercise of outstanding “in the money” stock options and unvested restricted stock units. The dilutive impact is determined by applying the treasury stock method. Performance-based share awards are included in the computation of diluted earnings per share only to the extent that the underlying performance conditions: (i) are satisfied by the end of the reporting period, or (ii) would be satisfied if the end of the reporting period were the end of the related performance period and the result would be dilutive.
(s)Treasury Stock
The Company records treasury stock at the cost to acquire it and includes treasury stock as a component of Stockholders’ Equity. In determining the cost of the treasury shares when either sold or issued, the Company uses the FIFO (first-in, first-out) method. If the proceeds from the sale of the treasury shares are greater than the cost of the shares sold, the excess proceeds are
recorded as additional paid-in capital. If the proceeds from the sale of the treasury shares are less than the original cost of the shares sold, the excess cost first reduces any additional paid-in capital arising from previous sales of treasury shares for that class of stock and any additional excess is recorded as a reduction of retained earnings.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year Consolidated Balance Sheet in order to conform to the current year’s presentation.
(u)New Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

New Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted by the Company

In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-10, Government Assistance (Topic 832): Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance. This update requires annual disclosures about transactions with a government that are accounted for by applying a grant or contribution accounting model by analogy. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied either (1) prospectively to all transactions within the scope of the amendments that are reflected in financial statements at the date of initial application and new transactions that are entered into after the date of initial application or (2) retrospectively to those transactions. The Company is required to adopt the guidance in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of these amendments on its consolidated financial statements.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (ASC Topic 326), as clarified in ASU 2019-04, ASU 2019-05, ASU 2019-11 and ASU 2018-19, amending how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The guidance requires the application of a current expected credit loss model, which is a new impairment model based on expected losses. Under this model, an entity recognizes an allowance for expected credit losses based on historical experience, current conditions and forecasted information rather than the current methodology of delaying recognition of credit losses until it is probable a loss has been incurred. The amendments for Smaller Reporting Companies are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, which for the Company will be the first quarter of fiscal 2024. The Company expects to early adopt this ASU in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. Although the impact upon adoption will depend on the financial instruments held by the Company at that time, the Company does not anticipate a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements based on the instruments currently held and its historical trend of bad debt expense relating to trade accounts receivable.

Management has evaluated other recently issued accounting pronouncements and does not believe that any of these pronouncements will have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

Recently Adopted by the Company

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848) - Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting (“ASU 2020-04”). ASU 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The amendments in this update apply only to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. ASU 2020-04 was effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2021. The Company’s securitization program references the LIBOR rate but only as a secondary rate to be used under specific circumstances. The adoption of this guidance had no significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement: Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”), which changes the fair value measurement disclosure requirements of ASC 820. ASU 2018-13 is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted for any eliminated or modified disclosures upon issuance of ASU 2018-13. ASU 2018-13 was effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2021. The adoption of this guidance had no significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
All other ASUs that became effective for Volt for fiscal 2021 were not applicable to the Company at this time and therefore, did not have any impact during the period.